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SAXONY NOBILITY

[SAXY212] King Wittekind of Saxony m. [NORW285] Geva Siegfriedsdottir
. [SAXY221] King Wigbert of Saxony m. Ourada
. . [RING231] Count Walpert of Ringelheim m. [SAXQ232] Altbergis of Lesmona
. . [SAXY231] Bruno von Saxony m. Suana de Montfort
. . . [SAXY241] Duke Liudolf of Saxony m. [SAXA242] Oda von Thuringia
. . . . [SAXY252] Liutgard of Saxony m. [RATH241] Duke Burkhard I of Swabia
. . . . [SAXY251] Duke Otto I of Saxony m. [BABE252] Hedwig von Babenburg
. . . . . [SAXY262] Oda von Saxony m2. [META291] Count Gerhard of Metz
. . . . . [SAXY261] Emperor Heinrich I of the West m2. [RING262] Mathilde von Ringelheim
. . . . . . [SAXY273] Hadwig von Germany m. [ROBE301] Duke Hugh the Great of France
. . . . . . [SAXY274] Gerberga von Saxony m1. [LORX291] Count Giselbert of Lotharingia
. . . . . . [SAXY275] Gerberga von Saxony m2. [CARO291] King Louis IV of France
. . . . . . [SAXY272] Emperor Otto II of the West m3. [BURK343] Adelaide von Burgundy
. . . . . . . [SAXY281] Emperor Otto III of the West m. [SCLE282] Theophanu Scleraina of Byzantium
. . . . . . . . [SAXY292] Matilda von Saxony m. [LORZ301] Palatine Count Ezzo of Lotharingia
. . . . . . [SAXY271] Emperor Otto II of the West m2. [WESK324] Edith of Wessex
. . . . . . . [SWAZ301] Duke Luitolph of Swabia m. [FRAY302] Ida of Franconia
. . . . . . . [SAXY282] Liutgarde von Saxony m. [GER2271] Duke Conrad II of Franconia
[SAXY211] King Wittekind of Saxony m. [NORW273] Geva Eysteinsdottir
. [SAXY222] Hasala von Saxony m. [SAXA221] King Bruno II of the Saxons
. [SAXY223] Dietrich the Riparian m. ?
. . [SAXY233] Ida m. [SAXA232] Echbert von Dreini

HOUSE OF SAXONY

[SAXY219] Wittekind/Widukind (born c.734), DUKE OF ENGERN, WESTPHALIA AND SAXONY, King of the Saxons, married 1. [NORW273] Geva Eysteinsdottir (born c.749, daughter of King Eystein Halfdansson of Raumariki, see NORWAY KINGDOM); then 2. (782) his niece [NORW285] Geva Siegfriedsdottir (daughter of King Siegfried Eysteinsson of Denmark, see NORWAY KINGDOM). He died at Engern (7th January 807), and Geva died 816.

The Saxons under Widukind were in constant revolt against Charlemagne's overlordship, particularly during 772-785, which is presumably why he continued to call himself King. On two occasions, 779 and 781, the Frankish army was routed by the Saxons led by Widukind in the Sutel mountains. In 782 Charlemagne mounted a savage reprisal at Verdun, in which all the Saxons taken prisoner and responsible for the revolt, some 4,500 men according to the "Carolingian Chronicles", were executed. Widukind whom "all denounced as the instigator of this wicked rebellion", was not among them, having fled into Nordmannia, which is today in the locality of Stadtberge on the Diemel River. Widukind eventually submitted and was baptised into the Christian faith in 785.

One writer states that during these struggles Widukind fled in 777 to his brother-in-law, King Siegfried, and 5 years later he married Siegfried's daughter, Geva. The Siegfried referred to was [NORW272] Siegfried Eysteinsson (745-98), brother of both [DANE261] Harald Eysteinsson and [NORW273] Geva Eysteinsson. Thus Widukind's wife's brother was Siegfried the Dane.

[SAXY222] Hasala (born c.765, daughter of Wittekind & 1st Geva) married (c.789) [SAXA221] King Bruno II of the Saxons (see EARLY SAXONY).

[SAXY223] Dietrich the Riparian (born c.780, son of Wittekind & 1st Geva).

[SAXY233] Ida (born c.800, daughter of Dietrich) married [SAXA231] Echbert the loyal von Dreini (born c.800, see EARLY SAXONY).

[SAXY221] Wigbert (born c.783, son of Wittekind & 2nd Geva), sachsischer Count, King of the Saxons, married Ourada. He died 827.

[RING231] Walpert/Waltbert von Ringelheim (born c.800, son of Wigbert) is described under RINGELHEIM COUNTY.

[SAXY231] Bruno (born 785, possibly son of Wigbert) married Suana de Montfort (born 790).

LIUDOLFIN HOUSE

[SAXY241] Liudolf (born 806, son of [SAXY231] Bruno) married [SAXA243] Oda (born 806, daughter of Count Billung I, see THURINGIA COUNTY). He was Count of Eastphalia, DUKE OF SAXONY (850-64), and died 12th March 866. Oda supposedly died 17th May 913 (age 107). As Oda had children between 835 and 850, it is possible her date of birth is erroneous.

[SAXY252] Liutgard of Saxony (born c.850, daughter of Liudolf) married [RATH241] DUKE BURKHARD I OF SWABIA, see RATHIEN COUNTY).

[SAXY251] Otto I der erlauchte [the illustrious] (born c.836, younger son of Liudolf) married (c.869) [BABE252] Hedwig (born c.853, see BABENBURG). Otto was DUKE OF SAXONY (880-912). Hedwige died 24th December 903, and Otto died 30th November 912.

[SAXY262] Oda (born c.884, daughter of Otto) married 1. (at Worms, 897) King Zwentibold of Lotharingia (slain in battle near present-day Susteren, 13th August 900); then 2. (900) his slayer [META291] Gerhard (see EARLY METZ), killed in battle 22nd June 910; then probably 3. Count Palatine Eberhard in Oberlahngau.

[SAXY261] Heinrich I the fowler and Hammer of the Slavs (born c.876, son of Otto) married 1. (c.906, though declared illegal by the church) Hatheburg (daughter & coheiress of Count Erwin), and they separated around 908, and were divorced 909; then 2. (at Wallhausen, 909) [RING262] Mathilde (born 892, daughter of Theudebert, see RINGELHEIM COUNTY). He was DUKE OF SAXONY (912-962), King of East Francia (919-36), EMPEROR (919-36), and died of a stroke at Memleben (2nd July 936). Mathilde died at Quedlinburg (14th March 968).

Henry succeeded his father as DUKE OF SAXONY (912). Following the death of King Conrad I of Germany (918), he was chosen by the Franconian and Saxon nobles as successor. But Bavaria, Swabia and Lotharingia refused to acknowledge him at first and it was not until 925 that he managed to win recognition from all the German states. When the Magyars invaded Thuringia (933), Henry repulsed them decisively. He defeated the Danes in the following year and seized territory from them. Henry was the first to create a united Germany and, although he never received the imperial crown, he is generally recognised as one of the (Holy Roman) Emperors. Mathilde afterwards became Saint Matilda.

[SAXY278] Gerberga (born at Nordhausen, 913-14, daughter of Heinrich & Mathilde) married 1. (928-29) [LORX291] Count Giselbert (see LOTHARINGIA COUNTY), drowned 2nd October 929; then 2. (939) [CARO291] King Louis IV (see CAROLINGIAN HOUSE).

[SAXY273] Hadwig (born 922, daughter of Heinrich & Mathilde) married (937) [ROBE301] DUKE HUGH the great (see ROBERTIAN HOUSE).

[SAXY279] Otto II the Great (born 23rd November 912, son of Heinrich & Mathilde) married 1. ---; then 2. (September 929) [WESK324] Edith (daughter of King Edward the elder, see ANGLO-SAXON KINGDOM), died (age 36) 26th January 946-47, buried at Magdeburg Monastery; then 3. (at Pavia, October/November 951) [BURK343] Adelheid (see JURANE BURGUNDY KINGDOM). Otto was King of Saxony (936-61), King of East Francia (936-973), King of Italy (951-73), EMPEROR (as Otto I, 962-72), and died at Memleben (7th May 973). His widow Adelheid died 16th December 999.

Edith's body was later transferred from Magdeburg Monastery to the newer Cathedral. The lead coffin, containing about 40 bones, was discovered in 2008; and in 2010 were sent to the City of Bristol University for forensic examination, which confirmed their authenticity. The remains were again reburied at the Cathedral, in October later that year. The inscription on the lead coffin reads:

EDIT.REGINE.CINERES.HIC.SARCOPHAGVS.HABET.RECONDITIS.SECVNDA
M.RENOVACIONE.HVIUS.MONVMENTI.FACTA.SVSINCARNA
D.VERBI.CVRRENTIBVS.ANNIS.MILLESIMO.QVINCENTISIMO.DE
CIMO                             AD.LAVDEM
                                  CHRISTI
                              REGIS
.SECVLORVM

Which translated means:

"The rescued remains of Queen Eadgyth are in this sarcophagus,
 after the second renovation of this monument in 1510
   Praise to Christ, King forever".

[SWAZ301] Luitolph (born c.930, only son of Otto & Edith) is described under DUKE LUITOLPH OF SWABIA.

[SAXY282] Liutgarde (born 931, only daughter of Otto & Edith) married (947) [GER2271] DUKE CONRAD II (see GERMAN DUKEDOMS & KINGDOMS).

 [SAXY281] Otto III rufus von Swabia (born 955, son of Otto & Adelheid) married (at St. Peter's Rome, 14th April 972) [SCLE282] Theophanu Scleraina (born c.956, daughter of Constantinos Scleros, see SCLEROS).

Otto had expected to marry Princess Anna according to the "bride advertisement", but instead he was presented with Theophanu, niece of the present Emperorís wife (Maria Scleraina), who was not of royal blood.

Otto was EMPEROR (as Otto II, 973-83), and died in Rome (7th December 983). Theophanu died at Nimwegen in the Netherlands (June 991).

[SAXY292] Matilda (born 978, daughter of Otto III & Theophanu) married [LORZ301] Palatine Count Ezzo (see LOTHARINGIA (PALATINE COUNTS)).

BILLUNG

[SAX2311] Billung m. ?
. [GENT351] Count Wichmann I in Bardengau and Wigmodien m. [RING264] Bia of Ringelheim
. [SAX2321] Duke Hermann of Saxony m. Hildegarde von Westerburg
. . [SAX2332] Matilda von Saxony m1. [FLAN301] Count Baldwin III of Flanders
. . [SAX2333] Matilda von Saxony m2. [LOTU311] Count Godefroi of Verdun
. . [SAX2334] Schwanehilde von Saxony m1. [MEIS361] March Count Ekkhard I of Meissen
. . [SAX2335] Schwanehilde von Saxony m2. [SOST351] March Count Thietmar III of Ostmark
. . [SAX2331] Duke Bernard I of Saxony m. [STAD332] Hildegarde von Heilangau
. . . [SAX2341] Duke Bernard II of Saxony m2. [SCHW402] Elika von Schweinfurt
. . . . [SAX2352] Gertrude von Saxony m1. [HOLL331] Count Floris I of Holland
. . . . [SAX2353] Gertrude von Saxony m2. [FLAN341] Count Robert I of Flanders
. . . . [SAX2354] Relinde von Saxony m2. [NAMU341] Count Albert III of Namur
. . . . [SAX2351] Duke Ordulf of Saxony m1. [NORW352] Gisele of Norway
. . . . . [SAX2361] Duke Magnus of Saxony m. [HUNG322] Sophie of Hungary
. . . . . . [SAX2372] Wulfhilde von Saxony m. [ESTB381] Duke Heinrich IX of Bavaria

[SAX2311] Billung, appears in Chronica Principum Saxonae as the father of Hermannum; married Ermengarde de Nantes.

[GENT351] Wichmann I der Altere of Hamaland (born c.900, son of Billung) is described under GENT.

[SAX2321] Hermann Billung (born c.905, son of Billung). Hermann was March Count of Saxony (953), DUKE OF SAXONY (961-73). He married 1. Oda; then 2. Hildesuit [possibly of Westerburg]. Hermann died at Quedlinberg (27th March 973).

[SAX2339] Matilda (born c.942, daughter of Hermann, but mother not known) married 1. [FLAN301] Count Baldwin III (see FLANDERS COUNTY), died 1st January 962; then 2. (c.963) [LOTU311] Count Godefroi barbatus (see LORRAINE (HOUSE OF VERDUN) DUKEDOM).

[SAX2338] Schwanehilde (daughter of Hermann, but mother not known) married 1. [SOST351] March Count Thietmar III of Ostmark (see SAXONY EASTERN MARCH COUNTY); then 2. (before 1000) [MEIS361] March Count Ekkhard I (see MEISSEN MARCH COUNTY).

[SAX2331] Bernard Billung I (born c.950, son of Hermann, but mother not known) was DUKE OF SAXONY (973-1011). He married (c.990) [STAD332] Hildegarde (daughter of Count Heinrich, see STADE COUNTY). He was killed in battle at Corvey (9th February 1010-11). Hildegarde died 3rd October 1011.

[SAX2341] Bernard II (born after 990) married 1. (allegedly) Bertrade (daughter of King Harald of Norway); then 2. (c.1020) [SCHW402] Elika [Flicke] (born c.1005, daughter of March Count Heinrich, see SCHWEINFURT). Bernard II was DUKE OF SAXONY (1010-59). Elika died c.1055, and Bernard died 29th June 1059.

[SAX2352] Gertrude (daughter of Bernard II & Elika) married 1. [HOLL331] Count Florent I (see HOLLAND COUNTY); then 2. (1063) Count Robert I (see FLANDERS COUNTY).

[SAX2354] Ida/Relinde (daughter of Bernard II & Elika) married 1. DUKE FREDERICK OF LOWER LOTHARINGIA; then 2. [NAMU341] Count Albert III (see NAMUR).

[SAX2351] Ordulf (born c.1020, son of Bernard II & Elika) married 1. (November 1042) [NORW352] Gisele/Ulfhild (born c.1023, daughter of King Olav II Haraldsson, see NORWAY KINGDOM), died 24th May 1071; then 2. (later in 1071) Gertrude (widow, daughter of Conrad, 2nd son of March Count Bernard II of Brandenburg). He was DUKE OF SAXONY (1062-73). Ordulf died 28th March 1072, and Gertrude died February 1116.

[SAX2361] Magnus I (born c.1045, only son of Ordulf & Gisele) married (1071) [HUNG322] Sophie (see HUNGARY). He was DUKE OF SAXONY (1072-1106), and died at Erthensburg (23rd August 1106). Sophie died 18th June 1095.

[SAX2372] Wulfhilde Billung (born c.1075, daughter of Magnus) married (c.1095) [ESTB381] DUKE HEINRICH IX the black (see BAVARIA (HOUSE OF ESTE) DUKEDOM).