Revised 01/12/2019



[MERO171] King Clovis I (see KINGS OF FRANCE) defeated the Visigoths near Poitiers (507), and repelled them to Septimania, an area bordered by the Pyrenees to the west and the Rhone to the east, named after the Roman Seventh Legion (Septimanii) whose veterans settled there when they retired.



[HEBA231] Zakkai Yehuda aka Eudo/Eudes (son of  [BAB4701] Ahunai aka Bera Ha-Nebi aka Hernaut aka Yomtov-Ruzbihan-Yitzak), Davidic Exilarch of Babylon, married 1. (at Babylon, c.710) Sussanah ha-Geveret (daughter of Exilarch Hananiah ben David). Jehuda/Judah went to France (715) and became Ruler of Aquitaine. Eudes defeated the Muslim Governor of Spain at Toulouse (721). Eudes first made an alliance with the Narbonne Wala Othman, but later allied himself with his former opponent, King Charles martel of the Franks. Charles and Eudes defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours (732). Eudes became King of Aquitaine, but abdicated (735) to return to Babylon to succeed his father-in-law as 9th Exilarch of the 3rd Dynasty. Charles then laid siege to Narbonne which eventually fell to the Franks (739). The Muslims later retook Narbonne and after a later siege it was retaken by King Pepin of the Franks (759) and Eudes' son (Makhir Todros, known as Aimeri de Narbonne) became the new Jewish ruler of Narbonne and Septimania, whilst his other son (Rabbenu Gershom, known as Girart de Vienne) ruled territory in Germany through his 2nd wife Imma. Eudes died 771.

[HEBA242] Judith (Bertha/Bertrade) married [PEPI231] King Pepin the short of the Franks (see HOUSE OF PEPIN).

[HEBC241] Makhir/Machir Todros/Theodoric ben Judah Zakkai (known as Theodoric, son of Zakkai Yehuda) is dealt with below.

[HEBA241] Rabbenu [may mean red beard] Gershom (known as Girart de Vienne, son of Zakkai Yehuda) married 1. Deborah (daughter of Rabbi Judah). Rabbi Judah later returned to Babylon (c.730), accompanied by Gershom and Deborah. Gershom and Deborah later moved to Constantinople, where Gershom was a goldsmith, and also physician to Byzantine EMPEROR LEO III. Gershom returned to France. He married 2. (757) Imma (possibly the daughter of his older brother Henoch ha-Nebi) and then settled in Germany, where he was known as Gerard von Allemagne [Allemania]. He died (799) in battle against the Avars.

[HEBA251] Solomon ([appears to have taken the name Bernard], son of Gershom & Imma) went to France (802), and married Liutgarde of Auvergne (daughter of Count Bernard). He became Count of Roussillion, then March Count of the Spanish March (probably 835-44).

[HEBA261] Bernard (son of Solomon/Bernard), March Count of the Spanish March, married Ermengarde of Chalons.

[HEBA272] Adelinde (born c.855, daughter of Solomon/Bernard) married [AQUI291] King Ramnulfe II of Aquitaine, see AQUITAINE (HOUSE OF AUVERGNE) DUKEDOM.

[HEBA271] William the pious (son of Solomon/Bernard) March Count of the Spanish March, Count of Toulouse, Limoges, Auvergne, DUKE OF AQUITAINE (898-918). He married 1. [PRO5326] Engelburge (daughter of King Boson of Provence, see PROVENCE KINGDOM); then 2. Ermengarde. He died 6th July 918.

[HEBA282] Ermengarde (born 915, daughter of William & Ermengarde), LADY OF AQUITAINE, married  [PRO3291] Rotbald I d'Agel (see PROVENCE (HOUSE OF AGEL) COUNTY).

[HEBA283] Emilienne (daughter of William & Ermengarde) married (before 911) [AQUI301] DUKE EUBES manzer of AQUITAINE (see AQUITAINE (HOUSE OF POITIERS) DUKEDOM).


[HEBC241] Makhir Todros/Theodoric ben Judah Zakkai (known as Theodoric I, and Aimeri of Narbonne, son of [HEBA231] Zakkai Yehuda, see above), Western Exilarch, Count of Autun, DUKE OF NARBONNE, married (c.730) [PEPI232] Aldane d'Austrasia (daughter of King Charles martel of France, see PALACE OF AUSTRASIA).

[HEBG259] Nathan Kalonymus (known as William I le cornet of Gellone), is dealt with under NATHAN KALONYMUS below.

[HEBM251] Yakar (known as Guibelin/Gui Alberic of Narbonne, youngest son of Theodoric) is dealt with under NATHAN KALONYMUS below.

[HEBC251] Nehemiah ha-Makhir (born c.730, known as Aymer le Chetif, Theuderic/Thierry IV, son of Theodoric), Count of Autun, married ldane/Aldana. He died c.790.

[HEBC262] Ava (daughter of Thierry IV) married [ALSX231] Count Hugo II de Tours (see ALSACE DUKEDOM).

[HEBC261] Isaac Kalonymus (known as William II of Gellone, born 755, son of Thierry IV), succeeded his uncle as Jewish King of Septimania (793-806), 3rd Count of Toulouse (793-806), married [HEBM263] Guibour aka Orable (see below). Later, Count William took part in the campaign that took Barcelona from the Muslims. William founded the monastery at Gellone (804). He retired there as a monk (806), where he eventually died (28th May 812). For his exploits he was known as Saint William.

[AQUI271] Gerard (son of William II), Count of Auvergne, is dealt with under AQUITAINE (HOUSE OF AUVERGNE) DUKEDOM.

[HEBC271] Warin/Guerin (known as Aaron of Macon, born 779, son of William II), Count of Macon and Chalons, and March Count of Auvergne, married his cousin [ALSX243] Ava (daughter of Hugo de Tours, see ALSACE (HOUSE OF REZES) DUKEDOM. He acquired the villa of Cluny (825). Guerin died 853.

[HEBC282] Nesiya (Ermengarde) of Macon married her cousin [HEBG281] Bernard II plantevelue/plantapilosa (see NATHAN KALONYMUS below).


[HEBG259] Nathan Kalonymus (known as William I le cornet of Gellone, born 755, son of [HEBC241] Theodoric), Jewish King of Septimania (775-93), deposed Count Chorson to become 2nd Count of Toulouse (778), married 1. [PEPI252] Cunegonde (sister & heiress of Count William I of Razes [the last Merovingian prince], and daughter of King Carloman, see AUSTRASIA (HOUSE OF PEPIN)); then 2.  [TOUS262] Orible (daughter of [TOUS251] Chorson/Torson, 1st Count of Toulouse, by --- widow of Thibaut de Orange); then 3. [SPOD232] Guitburge (daughter of Count Lambert of Hornbach, see TREVES COUNTY). He was killed in battle at Carcassonne (793).

Hisham I (a Muslim) declared a Holy War against the Christians (793). Half his army attacked Asturias in the north and the other half invaded Languedoc, reaching Narbonne. This latter force was met by William, who defeated them. However, when William faced them again at Villedaigne, he was defeated. But his obstinate resistance had so weakened the Muslim forces that their main force retreated to Spain, leaving a garrison behind in Narbonne, which then remained in Muslim control until 803.

[HEBG262] Herbert de Gellone (born 775, son of William I & 1st wife Cunegonde), married ---. He was blinded (830), and died 843.

[HEBG272] Kunigunde (born before 795, daughter of Herbert) married [ITAL291] King Bernhard of Italy (see FRENCH KINGS IN ITALY).

[MAYN261] Gauzlin (son of William I & 3rd wife Guitberge) is described under MAINE COUNTY (2).

[HEBG261] Nasi Meshullam I Bar Natan (known as Bernard Baso, Bernat de Brabant, born c.795, son of William I & 2nd wife Orible), March Count of Septimania (820-), Count of Barcelona (826-32 & 835-44), Count of Toulouse (835-844), married (at Aix-la-Chapelle, 28th June 824) [GASC243] Dhuoda/Duodene Sanchez (daughter of DUKE SANCHO I LOPEZ, see GASCONY (1)). Dhouda died February 841-42. In 844 Bernard was deposed and condemned to death for treason on the orders of King Charles II the bald. He was finally beheaded at Toulouse (844). Bernard's honours of Agde, Barcelona, Beziers, Gerona, Melgeuil, Narbonne and Nimes were handed by King Charles to Count Sunifred of Urgel (died 848). However the countship of Toulouse was handed over to his son (?) William (848) by Pepin II d'Aquitaine.

[HEBG271] Nasi Ithier Hayyim (known as Bernard I le veau and vitellus [=the calf], son of Bernard), Count of Auvergne, Count of Toulouse and Rouergue, "Master" of Aquitaine, married [TOUL283] Udalgarde (daughter of Count Fredol of Toulouse & Rouergue, see TOULOUSE COUNTY). He was murdered by Bernard (872).

[HEBG282] Regilinde or Emme (daughter of Bernard II) married [ANGO281] Count Wulgrin I (see ANGOULEME COUNTY).

[HEBG281] Nasi Meshullam II (known as Bernard II plantevelue/plantapilosa, born at Uzes, 22nd March 841, son of Bernard I) was Lay Abbot of Brioude (857-68), Count of Autun (864), March Count of Septimania (by 868), Count of Auvergne (872-86), March Count of Aquitaine (885-86). He married 1. (849) Ledegarde; then 2. [HEBC283] Ermengarde of Macon (daughter of Warin (see above). He was killed in battle (886).

[HEBG293] Ava d'Aquitaine (daughter of Bernard II & Ermengarde) married [AUVX271] Hector d'Auvergne (see AUVERGNE).

[HEBG292]  Nesiya (Adelinde) of Septimania (born c.870, daughter of Bernard) married her cousin [AQUI291] King Ramnulfe of Aquitaine (see AQUITAINE (HOUSE OF POITIERS) DUKEDOM).


[HEBM251] Yakar Bar Makhir Todros (known as Guibelin/Gui Alberic of Narbonne, youngest son of [HEBC241] Theodoric, see above) married his cousin [HESB242] Lady Rolande of Hesbaye (daughter of Count Ingram, see HESBAYE).

[HEBM262] Ermengarde of Hesbain (daughter of Alberic) married (794) [CARO259] King Louis the pious of France (see CAROLINGIAN HOUSE.

[HEBM263] Guibour aka Orable (daughter of Alberic) married [HEBC261] William II of Gellone (see above).