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SYRIA KINGDOM

SELEUCID DYNASTY

[SYRI081] Antiochus of Macedonia m. Laodice of Macedonia
. [SYRI091] King Seleucus I of Macedonia m. [BACT252] Princess Apama of Bactria
. . [SYRI102] Princess Phila II of Syria m. [MACE101] King Antigonus II gonatas of Macedonia
. . [SYRI103] Prince Achaeus of Macedonia m. [MACA252] Aesopia of Macedonia
. . . [SYRI113] Alexander V, Governor of Sardis m. Nysas
. . . . [SYRI126] Athena of Macedonia m. [MEGA121] Agathocles of Megapolis
. . . [SYRI114] Laodice of Syria m. [SYRI111] King Antiochus II theos of Syria
. . . [SYRI115] Andromachos of Syria m. ?
. . . . [SYRI125] Laodice of Syria m. [SYRI121] King Seleucus II of Syria
. . [SYRI101] King Antiochus I of Syria m. [MACE102] Stratonice of Macedonia
. . . [SYRI112] Princess Stratonice of Syria m. [MACE112] King Demetrius II aetolicus of Macedonia
. . . [SYRI116] Princess Apama of Syria m. [CYRE121] King Magas of Cyrene
. . . [SYRI111] King Antiochus II theos of Syria m. [SYRI114] Laodice of Syria
. . . . [SYRI122] Princess Laodice of Syria m. [MITH131] King Mithridates III of Pontus
. . . . [SYRI123] Stratonice m. [CAPP131] King Ariarathes III of Cappadocia
. . . . [SYRI121] King Seleucus II of Syria m. [SYRI125] Laodice of Syria
. . . . . [SYRI132] Antiochia of Syria m. [ARMX131] King Xerxes I of Armenia
. . . . . [SYRI131] King Antiochus III megas of Syria m. [MITH143] Laodice of Pontus
. . . . . . [SYRI142] Princess Nysa of Syria m. [MITH141] King Pharnaces I of Pontus
. . . . . . [SYRI143] Princess Cleopatra I of Syria m. [PTOL151] King Ptolemy V epiphanes of Egypt
. . . . . . [SYRI144] Antiochis of Syria m. [CAPP141] King Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia
. . . . . . [SYRI145] King Antiochus IV epiphanus of Syria m. ?
. . . . . . . [SYRI155] Princess Leodice of Syria m. [MITH151] King Mithridates V of Pontus
. . . . . . [SYRI141] King Seleucus IV philopator of Syria m. ?
. . . . . . . [SYRI151] King Demetrius I soter of Syria m. ?
. . . . . . . . [SYRI162] King Demetrius II nicator of Syria 
                          m1. [PTOL166] Queen Cleopatra II thea of Egypt
. . . . . . . . . [SYRI171] King Antiochus VIII epiphanes of Syria 
                            m1. [PTOL182] Princess Cleopatra tryphaena of Egypt
. . . . . . . . . . [SYRI182] Princess Laodice thea philadelphyos of Syria 
                              m. [COMG181] King Mithridates I callinicus of Commagene

[SYRI081] Antiochus of Macedonia, married Laodice of Macedonia.

[SYRI091] Seleucus I nicator [=victor] (born in Macedonia, c.358BCE), was a General serving with Alexander the Great. Alexander died 10th June 323BCE and had no male issue. He left his Empire divided between his four generals. Seleucus received Mesopotamia, Syria and Eastern Anatolia; Lysimachus received Southern and Western Anatolia (see LYSIMACHUS); Cassandra received Macedonia and Greece; and Ptolemaeus received Egypt, Libya and Northern Anatolia (see PTOLEMY DYNASTY). Seleucus married 1. (324BCE) [BACT252] Princess Apama of Bactria (daughter of Spitamenes of Bactria, see BACTRIA SATRAPS); then 2 (at least) Stratonice, whom he later divorced (293BCE) to allow his son to marry her instead, after discovering they had been having an affair behind his back. He was King of Macedonia (306-281BCE), and died 281BCE, having been stabbed by his supposed ally, Ptolemy Keraunos.

[SYRI102] Princess Phila II (daughter of Seleucus) married [MACE101] King Antigonus II gonatas (see MACEDONIA (ANTIGONID DYNASTY) KINGDOM).

[SYRI103] Achaeus/Achaios (son of Seleucus & Apama), Prince, married [MACA252] Aesopia (natural daughter of Alexander [III] the Great, see MACEDONIA (TEMENID DYNASTY) KINGDOM). He died 267BCE.

[SYRI115] Andromachos (son of Achaeus).

[SYRI125] Laodice (daughter of Andromachos) married her first-cousin [SYRI121] King Seleucus II of Syria, see below).

[SYRI113] Alexander V (son of Achaeus), Governor of Sardis, claimant to grandfather's empire, married Nysas. He died 243BCE.

[SYRI126] Athena (daughter of Alexander V, and sister of Philip V, claimant 232BC versus Demetrius II of Greece) married [MEGA121] Agathocles of Megalopolis (see MEGAPOLIS).

[SYRI114] Laodice (daughter of Achaeus) married his first-cousin [SYRI111] King Antiochus II theos of Syria (see below).

[SYRI101] Antiochus I soter [=saviour] (born 324BCE, son of Seleucus & Apama), 1st Seleucid King of Syria (323BCE). He married (293BCE) [MACE102] Stratonice (daughter of King Demetrius poliorcetes of Macedonia, see MACEDONIA KINGDOM), who had previously been married to his father. He ruled over the eastern part 292-281BCE, then over the entire country 281-261BCE. He died 261BCE.

[SYRI112] Stratonice (stratonike [=victorious army) (daughter of Antiochus I & Stratonice) married [MACE119] King Demetrius II Aetolicus (see MACEDONIA (ANTIGONID DYNASTY) KINGDOM).

[SYRI116] Apama (daughter of Antiochus I) married [CYRE121] King Magas of Cyrene [present-day Libya] (see CYRENE KINGDOM).

[SYRI111] Antiochus II theos (born 287BCE, 2nd son of Antiochus I & Stratonice), King of Syria (c.261-247BCE) married 1. his first-cousin [SYRI114] Laodice (daughter of Prince Acheus I, see above); then 2. Berenice (brother of King Ptolemy III of Egypt). He died 246BCE.

[SYRI122] Laodice (daughter of Antiochus II & Laodice) married [MITH131] King Mithridates II of Pontus (see PONTUS KINGDOM).

[SYRI123] Stratonice (daughter of Antiochus II & unknown mother) married [CAPP051] King Ariarathes III of Cappadocia (see CAPPADOCIA KINGDOM).

[SYRI121] Seleucus II (son of Antiochus & Laodice), King of Syria (246-227BCE), married his first-cousin [SYRI125] Laodice (daughter of [SYRI115] Andromachos, see above). At first he ruled alongside his step-mother (Berenice) on behalf of her infant son. He appears to have murdered them both, before her brother (Pharaoh Ptolemy III of Egypt) could arrive on the scene to aid her. Seleucus and Ptolemy were then engaged in a long war.

[SYRI132] Antiochia ("sister of Antiochus III") married [ARMX131] King Xerxes I of Armenia (see ARTACES).

[SYRI131] Antiochus III megas [=the great] (son of Seleucus II), his elder brother Seleucus III (who only ruled 227-223BCE), as King of Syria (223-187BCE). He married [MITH143] Laodice (daughter of King Mithridates IV of Pontus, see PONTUS KINGDOM).

[SYRI142] Nysa (daughter of Antiochus III) married [MITH141] King Pharnaces I of Pontus (see PONTUS KINGDOM).

[SYRI143] Cleopatra [glory of her father] (daughter of Antiochus III) married (193BCE) [PTOL169] King Ptolemy V epiphanes of Egypt (see PTOLEMY DYNASTY).

[SYRI144] Antiochis (daughter of Antiochus III) married [CAPP141] King Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia (see CAPPADOCIA KINGDOM).

[SYRI145] Antiochus IV epiphanus (born c.215BCE, son of Antiochus III), King of Syria (175-164BCE). He died 164BCE.

[SYRI155] Laodice (daughter of Antiochus IV) married [MITH151] King Mithridates V of Pontus (see PONTUS KINGDOM).

[SYRI141] Seleucus IV philopator (born 222BCE, son of Antiochus III), King of Syria (187-175BCE). He died 175BCE.

[SYRI151] Demetrius I soter [=saviour] (born 187BCE), was a hostage in Rome at the time of his father's death (175BCE), and the throne was seized by his uncle, Antiochus IV epiphanes, who was later followed by Antiochus V eupator [=good father]. In due course Demetrius escaped from confinement, murdered Antiochus V and became rightful King of Syria (162-150BCE). He was defeated and murdered (together with his wife and oldest son) by Alexander Balas (150BCE), and Alexander then became the next King of Syria (150-146BCE).

[SYRI162] Demetrius II nicator [=victor] (2nd son of Demetrius I), fled to Crete after his father was murdered (150BCE). He returned to Syria (147BCE) and, with the help of King Ptolemy VI philometor of Egypt, deposed King Alexander Balas. At the same time Demetrius married 1. [PTOL168] Queen Cleopatra Thea (sister & divorced wife of Ptolemy VI philometor, see PTOLEMY DYNASTY), who had previously killed Demetrius' elder brother [SYRI161] Prince Seleucus V.

The next year Alexander attempted to regain his throne, and succeeding in killing King Ptolemy VI. Alexander Balas fled to the Nabateans who (anxious to remain on good terms with Egypt) promptly cut off his head. Demetrius was unpopular with his people, and after much strife was eventually defeated and taken prisoner by King Mithridates I of Parthia, and replaced as king by Demetrius' younger brother Antiochus VII (who then married Demetrius' wife Queen Cleopatra thea). Demetrius was not executed, and was allowed to marry 2. Princess Rhodogune of Parthia. Demetrius was released from captivity (130BCE), and retook the throne from his younger brother. Demetrius was defeated in battle at Damascus (126BCE), after his wife (Rhodogune) had deserted him. He was captured, possibly tortured and executed (125BCE). In total he had been King of Syria (146-39 & 129-126BCE). He was succeeded by his former wife as Queen Cleopatra thea of Syria (126-125BCE). The following year (124BCE) there was a reconciliation between the Queen and her brother King Ptolemy VIII euergetes, after which they jointly ruled Egypt for some time (see PTOLEMY DYNASTY).

[SYRI171] Antiochus VIII epiphanes/callinicus/philometor grypus [=hook-nose], ruled jointly with his mother as King of Syria (125-96BCE), and solely from 123BCE after her death. [Legend recounts that in 123BCE Cleopatra tried to poison her son Antiochus VIII, but he was suspicious and made her drink it instead.] Antiochus married 1. [PTOL182] Princess Cleopatra tryphaena (daughter of King Ptolemy VIII physcon of Egypt). Queen Cleopatra tryphaena was later killed by Cyzicenus in revenge for her having previously arranged the killing of Cyzicenus' wife. King Antiochus was killed by his minister Heracleaon (96BCE).

[SYRI182] Laodice theo thiladelphyos (daughter of Antiochus VIII), married (before 109BCE) [COMG181] King Mithridates I Callinicus of Commagene (see COMMAGENE KINGDOM).